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Everything About Flour

WHEAT & WHEAT FLOUR
Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat. The flour made up of wheat is called flour only.  Flour is produced from other plants, too; such as barley, rye, oat, corn and pea. These flours are named like this: corn flour, barley flour, etc.
Wheat grain is composed of 3 main sections.

  • Shell (pericarp)
  • Embryo (germ)
  • Endosperm

During grinding these 3 sections can be separated from each other and they can be reunited in order to produce different types of flour in different compositions.
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Shell
Bran is obtained from the pericarp section of the wheat grain. Almost 14,5 percentage of grain is composed of bran. There are 86% niacin, 50% pantotenic acid, 42% riboflavin, 33% thiamin and 19% protein in the bran of whole wheat flour. Furthermore, the presence of cellulose is intense.
Embryo
Embryo is approximately 2,5% of the grain. It is usually together with the bran; however, they are sometimes separated. This section includes more oil than others. This is why embryo is used for the wheat oil production.  The composition of the embryo is 26% riboflavin, 21% pridoxin, 8% protein, 7% pantotenic acid and 2% niacin.  
Endosperm
Endosperm constitutes 85% of grain. It is the protein source of the grain. 70 -75% of endosperm is protein. Flour is made up of this part.

According to their botanic structures the wheat is classfied in 3 categories :

  • Triticum aestivum (milling wheat)
  • Triticum durum (durum wheat)
  • Triticum compactum (club wheat)

Besides, the wheat is classified according to grain hardness, grain color and sowing time.

  • According to grain hardness: Hard wheat, semi hard wheat, soft wheat.
  • According to grain color: Red and white wheat.
  • According to sowing time: Summer and winter time wheat.

The wheat preference of the industrialists depends on the flour yield and purpose of the use. For instance, high protein and quality is sought in milling wheat; on the other hand low protein is sought club wheat. Durum wheat is used in macaroni production. Thus, the protein ratios of flours made from this different wheat.
Although the composition of wheat differs depending on the type of wheat, grown up region and climate changes, the average is like below:

Composition of Wheat Grain

Component

%

Water

12

Carbohydrate

70

Protein

12

Oil

2

Cellulose

2,2

Ash

1,8

Some of the bran separated as a result of milling, other by-products and low protein wheat are used in feed production. Within the scope of renewable energy concept which has been on the agenda lately, wheat is used in bioethanol production, too.

Nutritional Value
Wheat flour is a significant source of carbohydrate. All wheat flour types, except the gluten flour take 80 percent of their calories from carbohydrate. The percentage of calories from protein changes between 9-15% depending on the type of flour (except gluten 45%). Calories from the oil are not more than 5%.
In addition to that each portion of meal with wheat flour meets 3–15 g nutritional fiber need of our body. Wheat flour comprises of vitamin B, zinc, calcium, folic acid, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, in less amount of sodium and other transition elements.

Types of Wheat Flour

  • White Flour: It is obtained from endosperm part.
  • Bread Flour: It is obtained from hard and high protein wheat. The amount of protein changes between 12–14%.
  • All Purpose Flour: It is produced from hard wheat or the mixture of hard-soft wheat. As it can be understood from the name of this flour, the usage areas of all purpose flour is very wide including, cake, cookie, biscuit and various pastry. The protein ratio in its composition is between 8-11%.
  • Cake Flour: It has low amount of protein in order to ensure the structure of the cakes are soft. On the contrary, the starch ratio is high. In other words, the flour which is obtained from low protein soft wheat is called as soft flour. Protein is 7-9% of the composition.
  • Pastry Flour: The amount of protein in this flour is betweenall purpose flour and cake flour. Generally, it is manufactured from soft wheat. However, it is also used in cracker, cake and cookie production. The protein ratio changes between 8-9%.
  • Phosphatized Flour: It has the feature of spontaneous leaven because it is produced by the addition of baking powder and salt. Phosphatized flour is not very convenient for bread production. It is better to be used in biscuit production.  
  • Gluten Flour: This is the highest protein flour among all the others; on the other hand, the amount of starch in this flour is very low. Gluten flour whose amount of protein changes between 40-45% is obtained from high protein summer time wheat.
  • Semolina: It is manufactured from roughly grinded durum wheat endosperm which is hard summer wheat. It is reach in gluten. Semolina is used in macaroni and couscous production with enrichment applications. Furthermore, there are breads made up of semolina, too.
Durum Wheat: It is produced by milling of semolina. Durum wheat is used in noodle production by enrichment applications.
 
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TURKISH FLOUR INDUSTRIALISTS’ FEDERATION
Üniversiteler Mah., 1598 Cad., A3 Plaza, No: 33, Bilkent Plaza, Bilkent, 06800, Ankara TURKEY
Phone: +90(312) 440 04 54 • Fax: +90(312) 440 03 64 • E-mail: bilgi@tusaf.org